Alaska Criminal Pattern Jury Instructions

AK A.C.P.J.I. 11.81.900(b) Definitions


(1) “access device” means a card, credit card, plate, code, account number, algorithm, or identification number, including a social security number, electronic serial number, or password, that is capable of being used, alone or in conjunction with another access device or identification document, to obtain property or services, or that can be used to initiate a transfer of property;

(2) “affirmative defense” means that

(A) some evidence must be admitted which places in issue the defense; and

(B) the defendant has the burden of establishing the defense by a preponderance of the evidence;

(3) “animal” means a vertebrate living creature not a human being, but does not include fish;

(4) “benefit” means a present or future gain or advantage to the beneficiary or to a third person pursuant to the desire or consent of the beneficiary;

(5) “building”, in addition to its usual meaning, includes any propelled vehicle or structure adapted for overnight accommodation of persons or for carrying on business; when a building consists of separate units, including apartment units, offices, or rented rooms, each unit is considered a separate building;

(6) “cannabis” has the meaning ascribed to it in AS 11.71.900 (10), (11), and (14);

(7) “conduct” means an act or omission and its accompanying mental state;

(8) “controlled substance” has the meaning ascribed to it in AS 11.71.900(4);

(9) “correctional facility” means premises, or a portion of premises, used for the confinement of persons under official detention;

(10) “credit card” means any instrument or device, whether known as a credit card, credit plate, courtesy card, or identification card or by any other name, issued with or without fee by an issuer for the use of the cardholder in obtaining property or services on credit;

(11) “crime” means an offense for which a sentence of imprisonment is authorized; a crime is either a felony or a misdemeanor;

(12) “crime involving domestic violence” has the meaning given in AS 18.66.990;

(13) “criminal street gang” means a group of three or more persons

(A) who have in common a name or identifying sign, symbol, tattoo or other physical marking, style of dress, or use of hand signs; and

(B) who, individually, jointly, or in combination, have committed or attempted to commit, within the preceding three years, for the benefit of, at the direction of, or in association with the group, two or more offenses under any of, or any combination of, the following:

(i) AS 11.41;

(ii) AS 11.46; or

(iii) a felony offense.

(14) “culpable mental state” means “intentionally”, “knowingly”, “recklessly”, or with “criminal negligence”, as those terms are defined in (a) of this section;

(15) “dangerous instrument” means

(A) any deadly weapon or anything that, under the circumstances in which it is used, attempted to be used, or threatened to be used, is capable of causing death or serious physical injury; or

(B) hands or other objects when used to impede normal breathing or circulation of blood by applying pressure on the throat or neck or obstructing the nose or mouth;

(16) “deadly force” means force that the person uses with the intent of causing, or uses under circumstances that the person knows create a substantial risk of causing, death or serious physical injury; “deadly force” includes intentionally discharging or pointing a firearm in the direction of another person or in the direction in which another person is believed to be and intentionally placing another person in fear of imminent serious physical injury by means of a dangerous instrument;

(17) “deadly weapon” means any firearm, or anything designed for and capable of causing death or serious physical injury, including a knife, an axe, a club, metal knuckles, or an explosive;

(18) “deception” means to knowingly

(A) create or confirm another’s false impression that the defendant does not believe to be true, including false impressions as to law or value and false impressions as to intention or other state of mind;

(B) fail to correct another’s false impression that the defendant previously has created or confirmed;

(C) prevent another from acquiring information pertinent to the disposition of the property or service involved;

(D) sell or otherwise transfer or encumber property and fail to disclose a lien, adverse claim, or other legal impediment to the enjoyment of the property, whether or not that impediment is a matter of official record; or

(E) promise performance that the defendant does not intend to perform or knows will not be performed;

(19) “defense”, other than an affirmative defense, means that

(A) some evidence must be admitted which places in issue the defense; and

(B) the state then has the burden of disproving the existence of the defense beyond a reasonable doubt;

(20) “defensive weapon” means an electric stun gun, or a device to dispense mace or a similar chemical agent, that is not designed to cause death or serious physical injury;

(21) “drug” has the meaning ascribed to it in AS 11.71.900 (9);

(22) “dwelling” means a building that is designed for use or is used as a person’s permanent or temporary home or place of lodging;

(23) “explosive” means a chemical compound, mixture, or device that is commonly used or intended for the purpose of producing a chemical reaction resulting in a substantially instantaneous release of gas and heat, including dynamite, blasting powder, nitroglycerin, blasting caps, and nitrojelly, but excluding salable fireworks as defined in AS 18.72.050, black powder, smokeless powder, small arms ammunition, and small arms ammunition primers;

(24) “felony” means a crime for which a sentence of imprisonment for a term of more than one year is authorized;

(25) “fiduciary” means a trustee, guardian, executor, administrator, receiver, or any other person carrying on functions of trust on behalf of another person or organization;

(26) “firearm” means a weapon, including a pistol, revolver, rifle, or shotgun, whether loaded or unloaded, operable or inoperable, designed for discharging a shot capable of causing death or serious physical injury;

(27) “force” means any bodily impact, restraint, or confinement or the threat of imminent bodily impact, restraint, or confinement, “force” includes deadly and nondeadly force;

(28) “government” means the United States, any state or any municipality or other political subdivision within the United States or its territories; any department, agency, or subdivision of any of the foregoing; an agency carrying out the functions of government; or any corporation or agency formed under interstate compact or international treaty;

(29) “highway” means a public road, road right-of-way, street, alley, bridge, walk, trail, tunnel, path, or similar or related facility, as well as ferries and similar or related facilities;

(30) “identification document” means a paper, instrument, or other article used to establish the identity of a person; “identification document” includes a social security card, driver’s license, non-driver’s identification, birth certificate, passport, employee identification, or hunting or fishing license;

(31)  “includes” means “includes but is not limited to”;

(32) “incompetent person” means a person who is impaired by reason of mental illness or mental deficiency to the extent that the person lacks sufficient understanding or capacity to make or communicate responsible decisions concerning that person;

(33) “intoxicated” means intoxicated from the use of a drug or alcohol;

(34)  “law” includes statutes and regulations;

(35)  “leased” includes “rented”;

(36)  “metal knuckles” means a device that consists of finger rings or guards made of a hard substance and designed, made, or adapted for inflicting serious physical injury or death by striking a person;

(37) “misdemeanor” means a crime for which a sentence of imprisonment for a term of more than one year may not be imposed;

(38)  “nondeadly force” means force other than deadly force;

(39) “offense” means conduct for which a sentence of imprisonment or fine is authorized; an offense is either a crime or a violation;

(40) “official detention” means custody, arrest, surrender in lieu of arrest, or actual or constructive restraint under an order of a court in a criminal or juvenile proceeding, other than an order of conditional bail release;

(41) “official proceeding” means a proceeding heard before a legislative, judicial, administrative, or other governmental body or official authorized to hear evidence under oath;

(42) “omission” means a failure to perform an act for which a duty of performance is imposed by law;

(43) “organization” means a legal entity, including a corporation, company, association, firm, partnership, joint stock company, foundation, institution, government, society, union, club, church, or any other group of persons organized for any purpose;

(44) “peace officer” means a public servant vested by law with a duty to maintain public order or to make arrests, whether the duty extends to all offenses or is limited to a specific class of offenses or offenders;

(45) “person” means a natural person and, when appropriate, an organization, government, or governmental instrumentality;

(46) “physical injury” means a physical pain or an impairment of physical condition;

(47) “police dog” means a dog used in police work under the control of a peace officer;

(48) “possess” means having physical possession or the exercise of dominion or control over property;

(49) “premises” means real property and any building;

(50) “propelled vehicle” means a device upon which or by which a person or property is or may be transported, and which is self-propelled, including automobiles, vessels, airplanes, motorcycles, snow machines, all-terrain vehicles, sailboats, and construction equipment;

(51) “property” means an article, substance, or thing of value, including money, tangible and intangible personal property including data or information stored in a computer program, system, or network, real property, an access device, a domestic pet or livestock regardless of value, choses-in-action, and evidence of debt or of contract; a commodity of a public utility such as gas, electricity, steam, or water constitutes property, but the supplying of such a commodity to premises from an outside source by means of wires, pipes, conduits, or other equipment is considered a rendition of a service rather than a sale or delivery of property;

(52) “public place” means a place to which the public or a substantial group of persons has access and includes highways, transportation facilities, schools, places of amusement or business, parks, playgrounds, prisons, and hallways, lobbies, and other portions of apartment houses and hotels not constituting rooms or apartments designed for actual residence;

(53) “public record” means a document, paper, book, letter, drawing, map, plat, photo, photographic file, motion picture, film, microfilm, microphotograph, exhibit, magnetic or paper tape, punched card or other document of any other material, regardless of physical form or characteristic, developed or received under law or in connection with the transaction of official business and preserved or appropriate for preservation by any agency, municipality, or any body subject to the open meeting provision of AS 44.62.310 , as evidence of the organization, function, policies, decisions, procedures, operations, or other activities of the state or municipality or because of the informational value in it; it also includes staff manuals and instructions to staff that affect the public;

(54) “public servant” means each of the following, whether compensated or not, but does not include jurors or witnesses:

(A) an officer or employee of the state, a municipality or other political subdivision of the state, or a governmental instrumentality of the state, including legislators, members of the judiciary, and peace officers;

(B) a person acting as an advisor, consultant, or assistant at the request of, the direction of, or under contract with the state, a municipality or other political subdivision of the state, or another governmental instrumentality; in this subparagraph “person” includes an employee of the person;

(C) a person who serves as a member of the board or commission created by statute or by legislative, judicial, or administrative action by the state, a municipality or other political subdivision of the state, or a governmental instrumentality;

(D) a person nominated, elected, appointed, employed, or designated to act in a capacity defined in (A) – (C) of this paragraph, but who does not occupy the position;

(55) a “renunciation” is not “voluntary and complete” if it is substantially motivated, in whole or in part, by

(A) a belief that circumstances exist which increase the probability of detection or apprehension of the defendant or another participant in the criminal enterprise, or which render more difficult the accomplishment of the criminal purpose; or

(B) a decision to postpone the criminal conduct until another time or to transfer the criminal effort to another victim or another but similar objective;

(56) “serious physical injury” means

(A) physical injury caused by an act performed under circumstances that create a substantial risk of death; or

(B) physical injury that causes serious and protracted disfigurement, protracted impairment of health, protracted loss or impairment of the function of a body member or organ, or that unlawfully terminates a pregnancy;

(57) “services” includes labor, professional services, transportation, telephone or other communications service, entertainment, including cable, subscription, or pay television or other telecommunications service, the supplying of food, lodging, or other accommodations in hotels, restaurants, or elsewhere, admission to exhibitions, the use of a computer, computer time, a computer system, a computer program, a computer network, or any part of a computer system or network, and the supplying of equipment for use;

(58) “sexual contact” means

(A) the defendant’s

(i) knowingly touching, directly or through clothing, the victim’s genitals, anus, or female breast; or

(ii) knowingly causing the victim to touch, directly or through clothing, the defendant’s or victim’s genitals, anus, or female breast;

(B) but “sexual contact” does not include acts

(i) that may reasonably be construed to be normal caretaker responsibilities for a child, interactions with a child, or affection for a child;

(ii) performed for the purpose of administering a recognized and lawful form of treatment that is reasonably adapted to promoting the physical or mental health of the person being treated; or

(iii) that are a necessary part of a search of a person    committed to the custody of the Department of Corrections or the Department of Health and Social Services;

(59) “sexual penetration”

(A) means genital intercourse, cunnilingus, fellatio, anal intercourse, or an intrusion, however slight, of an object or any part of a person’s body into the genital or anal opening of another person’s body; each party to any of the acts described in this subparagraph is considered to be engaged in sexual penetration;

(B) does not include acts

(i) performed for the purpose of administering a recognized and lawful form of treatment that is reasonably adapted to promoting the physical health of the person being treated; or

(ii) that are a necessary part of a search of a person committed to the custody of the Department of Corrections or the Department of Health and Social Services;

(60) “solicits” includes “commands”;

(61) “threat” means a menace, however communicated, to engage in conduct described in AS 11.41.520 (a)(1) – (7) but under AS 11.41.520(a)(1) includes all threats to inflict physical injury on anyone;

(62) “unborn child” means a member of the species Homo sapiens, at any stage of development, who is carried in the womb;

(63) “violation” is a noncriminal offense punishable only by a fine, but not by imprisonment or other penalty; conviction of a violation does not give rise to any disability or legal disadvantage based on conviction of a crime; a person charged with a violation is not entitled

(A) to a trial by jury; or

(B) to have a public defender or other counsel appointed at public expense to represent the person;

(64) “voluntary act” means a bodily movement performed consciously as a result of effort and determination, and includes the possession of property if the defendant was aware of the physical possession or control for a sufficient period to have been able to terminate it.